Changquan (Long Fist 长拳)
Chángquán (长拳) is a general term for external (as opposed to internal) Northern Wushu. It is one of the types of Wushu kung fu.
A man doing cekongfan (侧空翻; side somersault), a common move in Changquan.The forms within the Long Fist style emphasize fully extended kicks and striking techniques, and by its appearance would be considered a long range fighting system. In some Long Fist styles the motto is that the best defense is a strong offense, in which case the practitioner launches a pre-emptive attack so aggressive that the opponent doesn't have the opportunity to attack. Long Fist uses large, extended, circular movements to improve overall body mobility in the muscles, tendons, and joints. After advanced study, a Long Fist practitioner will find that its forms contain Qin Na joint-locking techniques, as well as Shuai Jiao throws and takedowns.
The Long Fist style is considered to contain a good balance of hand and foot techniques, but in particular it is renowned for its impressive acrobatic kicks. Of contemporary wǔshù events, Long Fist techniques are most popular and memorable with its whirling, running, leaping, and acrobatics. Chanquan moves are difficult to perform, requiring great flexibility and athleticism comparable to gymnasts.
Long Fist's arsenal of kicks covers everything from a basic front toe-kick to a jumping back-kick, from a low sweep to a tornado-kick. Specifically, typical moves in modern Changquan include: xuanfengjiao (旋风脚; whirlwind kick), xuanzi (旋子; butterfly jump), cekongfan (侧空翻; side somersault), and tengkongfeijiao (腾空飞脚; flying jump kick).
History of Long Fist
The core of Changquan / Long Fist was developed in the 10th century by Zhao Kuangyin, founding Emperor of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). His style was called Tàizǔ Chángquán, which means the Long Fist style of Emperor Taizu. In semi-legendary classic writings transmitted by Tàijíquán's Yang family, their martial art is referred to by the name Chángquán in one of the received texts. These texts can only be reliably dated to the second half of the 19th century. The Long fist of contemporary wǔshù draws on Chāquán, flower fist Huāquán, Pào Chuí, and red fist (Hóngquán).